Leading teams in changing times

Wednesday, July 27, 2016


Before we can lead and expect people to follow, we must be able to understand and connect.

As John Maxwell quips: “If you’re leading, and no one’s following- you’re just out for a walk.”

Our research shows that the ideal manager of the emerging generations is one who values communication and creates an environment of transparency and respect for staff. Their preferred leadership style is simply one that is more consensus than command, more participative than autocratic, and more flexible and organic than structured and hierarchical.

Here are 5 tips on how to lead people, your team or your organisation, so that people will follow.

Prioritise People

Leaders prioritise culture and build it within their organisation. By knowing your purpose (that is, what you do and why you exist) you can instil this into your team, and lead with a values-based vision.

Be Collaborative

The best leaders intersect the differing levels of their organisation to make a cohesive and united team. While you might have senior leaders, managers and executives within an organisation, leaders bring these roles together to create alignment under the one vision.

Focus on the positives

Leaders focus on the positives, spread words of affirmation and celebrate the wins within their team. When things don’t go to plan, leaders initiate a culture of focusing on the positives, and using the negatives for improvement.

Shape the culture

Effective leaders shape a culture of participation, not isolation. Collaboration is key for 21st Century organisations, and by utilising the different skill sets and talents within a team, leaders will not only find more effective solutions and ideas but also bring out the potential in the members of their team.

Be proactive, not reactive

Leaders are proactive, not reactive. A proactive leader is one who sees opportunities or potential, and acts to make effective change, rather than waiting to respond. They are not victims of change but rather see the trends, shape a response and create the future.

So in a world of flat structures and consultative practices, it is leaders who coach and mentor rather than command and control, who understand and connect with their teams who will see people follow them.


About our leadership workshops

In a world of flat structures and consultative practices, coaching and mentoring has replaced commanding and controlling. This session delivers the latest findings on how to effectively motivate and lead teams in these 21st Century times. This session covers:

  • Overview of the best HR practices for today
  • Attraction and engagement strategies
  • Management strategies that connect with an intergenerational workforce


  • About Ashley McKenzie - Team Leader of Communications at McCrindle

    Ashley McKenzie is a social researcher, trends analyst and Team Leader of Communications at the internationally recognised McCrindle. As a trends analyst she understands the need for organisations to communicate with the emerging generations to effectively engage and motivate them. 

    From her experience in managing media relations, social media platforms, content creation and event management, Ashley is well positioned to advise how to achieve cut through in these message-saturated times. Her expertise is in training and equipping leaders and teams on how to communicate across generational barriers.

    Wealth and Income Distribution State V State

    Monday, July 25, 2016


    Australia has long been considered the land of the middle class, but in recent years the gap has been widening between the rich and the poor. When it comes to the battle of the states, which corner of Australia scores the highest and the lowest on the income and wealth report? Will the Baby Boomer generation continue their stronghold on our national wealth?

    Is Australia still the land of the middle class?

    It is hanging in there, but it’s under pressure. We have seen some hollowing out in the middle of the earnings and a bit of spread to either end. The average annual household earnings are around $107,000 however the lowest fifth of households earn 20% of this while the top fifth average almost three times this. That means that the top fifth of households are taking home about 12 times what the bottom fifth of households are earning.

    Most Aussies have their wealth tied up in their homes, how does ownership compare with the top, middle and lower classes?

    The average wealth (if you liquidate everything and pay off all your debts, what are you left with) is about $800,000. The bottom 1 in 5 have a net worth of just $35,000, the top 20% of all household have a net worth of about $2,500,000. That means that the top fifth of households have about 62% of Australia’s wealth, and the bottom fifth take less than 1% of Australia’s national private wealth. So that's a big difference in wealth across these households.

    Which states are best and worst performers when we are looking just at income?

    The mining boom in WA has really done a great thing over there and so they are leading the earnings chart, with the ACT not too far behind with public servant wages doing pretty well. At the bottom of the tree you have Tasmania, earning about $50,000 less per annum, per household, than what we have in the west.

    What Makes a City the Most Liveable?

    Wednesday, July 20, 2016

    What makes a state or city liveable? Is it the low crime rate, affordability, ease of travel or is it simply the weather? We have compared some of the major factors and revealed what Aussies really think.

    Affordability

    If you take the average weekly earnings, subtract the average weekly mortgage repayments based on house costs, you find that NSW doesn’t do too well, it is earning 20% above the average, but the houses are 64% above the average, so NSW works out to be the worst in terms of income after housing. But WA is on top of the charts, with the ACT doing pretty well also.


    Ease of travel

    We took the centre of population of each of our capital cities, the mid-point of the population sprawl where as many people live north, as south of this point, and as many east, as west. From this centre of living we measured the average, non-peak hour driving time to the centre of the CBD marked by the GPO of each capital. We found that as we would probably expect, Sydney was the longest drive, about 33 minutes to get from the centre of population to the centre of the city, but the quickest trip of all was Brisbane with just 8 minutes.


    Crime rates

    This is the number of offenders per annum, per 100 people and the Territories book end the data here, with the ACT with the lowest crime rate nationally and the Northern Territory as the highest crime rate and the other states right in the middle. As measured by crime rates, the ACT is Australia’s safest place to live.


    Weather

    We measured this by looking at the average number of sunny days - totally clear days in a year. Tasmania not doing too well with a lot of cloudy, overcast days, but WA takes the crown with the most number of sunny days in any given year.



    Watch Mark McCrindle's full interview on The Daily Edition here


    A Snapshot of Education Across Australia

    Monday, July 18, 2016

    We have been looking at different aspects of life in Australia and we are turning our focus on how each state rates when it comes to education. Are we more educated than we used to be? In 1986 49% of students completed year 12 and these days its fast approaching 90%.

    Let’s talk about tertiary education across the generations

    We are becoming an even cleverer country as measured by university completion so if we look at the Baby Boomers, 1 in 5 have a university degree, for Generation X, that’s 1 in 4, for Generation Y its 1 in 3 but for today’s school students, about 1 in 2 of them will end up with a university degree in their lifetime.



    How does university attendance compare across the states?

    If we look at 18 – 24 year olds, who are full time students, we have the ACT and Victoria leading the charge there and the other states not too far behind, while the Northern Territory is a fair way behind.




    When looking at school performance, which state is performing the best as they hit year 7?

    The NAPLAN results allows us to compare across Australia. If you look at the percentage of students in year 7 who are above the national minimum standard, again good results across the board. ACT and Victoria again leading Australia as far as the proportion of students above the standards. The other states are close behind, again with the Northern Territory a bit off the pace.


    Having an education usually means a lower risk of unemployment, how did the states rate?

    Pretty good, Australia as a whole is going very well, with 5.7% unemployment, that’s well below a lot of comparable nations. It has gone down this year, not up and if you look at the states that are doing better than that with a lower unemployment rate, the Northern Territory and ACT are performing best however some other states particularly South Australia and Tasmania are a bit behind.


    Watch Mark McCrindle's full interview on The Daily Edition here


    The Shopper's Pick: Understanding Australia's new village green

    Thursday, July 14, 2016

    This year we were delighted to write up and design the third and latest report in the Trolley Trends Series, ‘The Shoppers Pick’ for Woolworths Limited. From developing the survey through to conducting the analysis, this report is the perfect blend of quality research with segmentation and visuals, making the research easy to consume.

    With 1 in 5 (20%) Australian supermarket customers going to the supermarket at least once a week, the report reveals that a record number of people (44%) consider the local shopping centre to be central to community life and has truly established itself as the new village green – a place for connection and engagement with the wider community, perhaps even more so than the local pub, school or community centre.

    It is the theme of local which is clearly the key message of ‘The Shopper’s Pick’, which provides a unique look into modern Australia’s living, eating and shopping habits today.


    A GLOBAL NATION WITH A PASSION FOR LOCAL

    As Australia becomes increasingly connected to global economies and new technologies, there is an equal if not stronger desire among shoppers to support Australian made products and local growers. It is increasingly important to Australian shoppers to know where their food comes from.

    More than half of Australian shoppers (52%) state that buying local food is extremely or very important to them. In fact, around a quarter of shoppers prefer to purchase meat and poultry, bread and grains, and seafood and fish that are sourced locally in their own region rather than sourced further afield in their own state or within another region in Australia.


    AUSTRALIA’S SEASONAL PERSONALITIES

    Australians are impacted in different ways by the changing seasons. Australia’s Seasonal Personalities explores the different personalities of Australians and the impact seasons have on their lifestyle. Which Seasonal Personality are you?

    THE HEALTH REVOLUTION

    Australians are becoming increasingly health conscious and aware of the foods they consume. This trend towards healthy eating is demonstrated in the increase of health foods being included by Australians in their weekly shop.

    Just over half of shoppers (52%) buy health food products weekly (i.e. sugar free, additive free, gluten free, dairy free, organic, raw, salt free or vegan), with sugar free products the most likely to be on Australians’ shopping lists and purchased by just over half of shoppers (51%), followed by organic and raw foods (both at 35%), and additive free foods (27%).


    VALUE SWAG: A NATION OF CREATIVE SAVERS

    Australians are a nation of savvy shoppers, who seek products that are value for money. Nearly 7 in 10 shoppers (69%) state that buying on discount is extremely or very important to them. These values are reflected in the ingredients they purchase for meals cooked at home, with 99% of Australian shoppers saying price is an important factor they take into consideration. As part of being savvy shoppers, Australians are also creative savers. Almost 6 in 10 shoppers (58%) save money by purchasing groceries based on weekly specials, while just over half (52%) save money by writing a shopping list and sticking to it. Stocking up and bulk-buying are two other ways Australians save money, with just over half of shoppers (53%) currently saving money by stocking up on discounted non-perishables.


    This report follows on from the 2014 Trolley Trends Report which focused on the increasing importance of ‘Fresh’ amongst the Australian population. The report also found that one of the most common community connections for Australians is the local shopping centre. To access the Future of Fresh report, please click here.

    World Population Day; a snapshot of Australia’s population state vs. state

    Monday, July 11, 2016

    Today is World Population Day, so let's take a look at different aspects of Australia's demographics and how each of our states stack up. Sydney’s headcount will hit 5 million later this year, but can it keep its place as the nation’s biggest city? The state of Queensland is also set to mark a major milestone, as it hits 5 million, while Melbourne has maintained its lead as Australia's fastest growing city.

    what will a population of 5 million mean for Sydney?

    More densification and more urbanisation. 1 in 5 Australians lives in Sydney and it’s been one of the fastest growing cities and from a population perspective it’s Australia's leading city. For every new detached home that is built in Sydney, you now have 2 units or townhouses, so it’s the vertical communities not just the horizontal ones – that’s what will mark Sydney’s future as the city continues to grow.

    NSW is going to hit 8 million, but Queensland is going to hit a milestone too

    Queensland is closing in on the 5 million mark, and around the same time, Sydney gets to 5 million. Queensland is interesting because it’s the most decentralised of our states, more than half of the population lives outside of its capital of Brisbane. It’s has 11 of Australia's 30 largest cities, while NSW only has 5. For NSW, two thirds of the whole state lives in the one city of Sydney.

    In terms of population growth, how do the other capital cities compare with Sydney?

    It’s really all about Sydney and Melbourne, in terms of the size of the cities, they are the largest cities. We have slower growing states like South Australia and Tasmania - in fact Melbourne is adding more people every 11 days than Tasmania adds in an entire year at the moment.

    By comparison, how slow is South Australia’s growth?

    It is quite slow, it was 1959 that Sydney got to 2 million people, Adelaide won’t get to 2 million until 2055, about a century after Sydney got there. While it’s the fifth largest city, it’s a long way off the pace of Sydney and Melbourne. Interestingly, in the year that both Sydney and Melbourne get to 8 million, it will be in that year that Adelaide gets to 2 million.

    Why is South Australia’s growth so small?

    This hasn’t had the historical scale and growth of the Eastern capitals. While it has the lifestyle and housing affordability, it hasn’t been Australia's business capital in the same way that Sydney and Melbourne have been however, with new state government incentives, this may start to change. 

    View Mark's full interview on The Daily Edition here


    Digital Thumbprint; Social Media Trends Study

    Monday, July 04, 2016

    We were delighted to have been commissioned by Optus to conduct research into the increased use and implications of online selfies with a focus on the role played by parents in guiding their children’s online behaviour. This national research has been launched in partnership with Optus and their Digital Thumbprint Education Program, and revealed some interesting insights into the attitudes of Australia's next generations towards online safety and selfie regret.

    Social media has taken the world by storm, with Facebook reaching 1 billion active users in 6 years. Today, Facebook has already exceeded the population of China at 1.4 billion users, while YouTube boasts 4 billion views per day. The report reveals that young adults (aged 18-25) and parents in Australia share in this statistic, with over 9 in 10 (93% and 92% respectively) of those who have at least one active social media account being active on Facebook.

    The research found that one in four parents (25%) own a social media account to monitor their child’s online activities.

    It also found that teens say they obsessively compare their life and achievements with others, with one in three admitting they regretted one or more selfies they had shared online. A quarter of 18 to 25-year-olds said they were affected by FOMO – the fear of missing out – and so were hooked on social media. 

    "While at first it may seem self-obsessed to put photos up on Instagram of yet another selfie or the lunch we are about to eat, there is actually more to it than that. Individuals are taking photos of themselves to share their experience with others – it’s keeping in touch, trying to connect and communicate.” - Mark McCrindle.

     Find out more about the findings of the study in the below infographic:



    Homes of the Future: Mark McCrindle discusses housing trends

    Thursday, June 16, 2016

    What is shaping our built environment?

    The first is population growth. Australia has just reached 24 million which means we have added an extra million people in less than 3 years, and most of this growth is in our larger capital cities. This is creating a shift from suburban to urban living; from the traditional horizontal communities to the new vertical ones. In our largest capital cities, two-thirds of all new housing approvals are high or medium density rather than detached homes. This densification is creating walkable communities, multi-use areas where people live, work and play in a more localised space, and of course increased access to transit and transport hubs. The other factor shaping developments is affordability. With rising house prices, Australians are looking for financially sustainable options which meet the needs of both lifestyle and affordability, and create the flexibility for our homes to change in tune with our needs and lifestyles.

    What are the current trends and will they last?

    While design trends come and go with the changing fashions, there are some broader development trends that are here to stay. The increased access to open spaces, in-door out-door areas, balconies, natural light and bringing vegetation into urban environments are all timeless trends that resonates with our temperate climate and needs. Similarly, with food central to our social environment, open-plan kitchens and meal areas in homes and open social spaces in offices are trends we will see continue.

    How is technology affecting it?

    Today’s technology is seamlessly integrated into our lives, and we are seeing the same seamless integration into our homes. The internet of things means that lighting, sound, temperature, entertainment and security in our domestic environments are all manageable through our personal devices. The decade ahead will see our pantries and fridges talk to our devices to update shopping lists, our home entertainment experience continue playing seamlessly on our portable devices and our hydrogen cars help power our homes.

    Image source: The Clipsal Smart Home range (courtesy of www.clipsal.com)

    What are the demographic trends?

    Homes of the future will have the flexibility to accommodate multiple generations living under the one roof. They will meet the changing needs of a more culturally diverse community and have clever innovations to facilitate support to Australians living independently in their homes to a much older age than we currently see.

    What does the future hold?

    While Generation Z, who are just starting their careers, will have to pay more for their homes in the future, these buildings and the built environment in which they sit will far exceed what their parents experienced in their first homes. Not only will the technologies and fittings in the home be exciting but the community spaces, café culture and neighbourhood amenities will continue to adjust and adapt to meet the lifestyle expectations of the 21st Century generations.

    How Australia’s Transformation Impacts Schools [Podcast]

    Friday, June 10, 2016

    Only occasionally in history do massive demographic changes combine with huge social shifts, ongoing generational transitions and unprecedented technological innovation so that within the span of a decade society altogether alters. 

    Australia is currently in the midst of one such transformation.

    Schools are not only in the midst of these massive changes, but they’re actually at the front line of it. Schools bridge more generation gaps than any other sector, because their end client, the student is in the youngest generations, and yet the average age of employee in education is one of the oldest ages.

    Education is bridging more generation gaps than almost every other sector and of course the young people are driving some many of these trends – the technology ones, the social trends, and obviously generational changes. When it comes to education as we know it today, it really is a 19th Century concept with classes, curriculums and examinations. Most of the buildings there are 20th Century in their nature and yet it’s the 21st Century generation that we’re educating. That again highlights the challenge that exists for school today.

    When we think about those youngest generations entering school, they’re going to live longer, work later, they’re going to work across more careers and some of those jobs they’ll be working in don’t currently exist. While we feel we’re at the start of this 21st Century, they’ll still be in the workforce as we’re edging closer to the 22nd Century.

    It is imperative that we recognise the gap that we are bridging and the foundation of education that we’re providing to this generation, who through the midst of our challenges in this nation, in the midst of the middle of this century, they will be the leaders.


    Mark McCrindle and Brad Entwistle discuss the key megatrends reshaping Australia and how they might change the ways non-government schools think about the future and the next generation of students. Mark concludes the interview with his biggest insight from his research and how that will impact schools to be relevant and attract students in the future.


    LISTEN TO THE FULL PODCAST HERE


    ABOUT MARK MCCRINDLE

    Mark is an award-winning social researcher, best-selling author, TedX speaker and influential thought leader, and is regularly commissioned to deliver strategy and advice to the boards and executive committees of some of Australia’s leading organisations.

    Mark’s understanding of the key social trends as well as his engaging communication style places him in high demand in the press, on radio and on television shows, such as Sunrise, Today, The Morning Show, ABC News 24 and A Current Affair.

    His research firm counts amongst its clients more than 100 of Australia’s largest companies and his highly valued reports and infographics have developed his regard as a data scientist, demographer, futurist and social commentator.


    DOWNLOAD MARK'S SPEAKING PACK HERE

    Australia’s Generations by Wealth and Income

    Wednesday, June 01, 2016

    This infographic is based on analysis of the ABS Household Income and Wealth data released in late 2015 and 2013. It gives a picture of how both income and wealth is distributed across the generations of households in Australia and how it has been changing.

    Generation Y: High incomes, low wealth

    While Generation Y aged 25 to 34 are income rich, earning in gross household terms $113,152 per annum, their net worth is modest, at $268,800. As they enter their mid-30’s, they are getting closer to their key earnings years however such has been the low wages growth over the last two years, their household incomes have only increased by $5,356, or 5% since 2013. While Gen Y households on average earn more per annum than the older Boomers aged 55-64 who are rapidly easing out of their full-time working roles, these Boomers managed income increases almost three times that of the younger generation over this period ($14,040). This 14% increase in annual household incomes came about because the older Boomers were reliant not on wages growth but investment income which has seen solid increases over the last two years.

    Generation Stagnation

    It is ironic, and unfortunate that the emerging generation of wealth accumulators, moving up the career ladder have seen far smaller income increases (amounts just keeping up with inflation) than the generations that are easing out of employment or having ceased employment. Indeed, the generation aged 65+ managed much higher income increases (16%) than the younger working age Gen Y’s.

    Wealth compared across the generations

    The generational financial inequities are even more pronounced when analysing net wealth by generational cohort. While Gen Y have a household net worth of $268,800, it is less than half that of the Gen Xers who are just a decade older. The highest net worth generation in Australia are the Boomers aged 55-64 who not only have a net wealth almost 5 times that of the generation of their children (Gen Y) but they still have a decade or more of earnings and wealth accumulating ahead of them.

    The $1 million households

    While Gen Y have seen a wealth increase of 9% since 2012 ($21,647), the mid 50’s Boomers have seen a 14% wealth increase ($153,335) with their wealth rising since 2012 from $1,086,365 to $1,239,700. Therefore, not only does the average Australian household aged over 55 have a net worth exceeding $1 million, but, due largely to rising property prices over the last few years, it is also seeing the fastest wealth increases. When the demographic size of each generation is compared against their corresponding economic share, the differences are stark. Australians aged 25 to 34 are equal in size to the Over 65’s at 3.6 million, or 15% of the total population of 24 million. However, the net wealth of Generation Y is well below this population share at just 7% of the national private wealth compared to the Builders generation who have a share of 26%, almost twice their demographic proportion.

    The quarter who own more than half

    In total the Baby Boomers (45 to 64) are a quarter of the population (25%) but own more than half of Australia’s national wealth (53%). Their economic footprint is twice as large as their demographic footprint. While the Gen Y’s have decades of wealth accumulating ahead of them which will grow their net worth footprint, it is unlikely that Australia will ever see the likes of today’s Boomers again where a quarter own more than half. The Boomers have been the beneficiaries of a near 50-year economic miracle, and they are unlikely to ease out of this accumulating any time soon.

    The $3 trillion wealth transfer

    But there is some hope for the emerging generations who have stagnated in wealth and have been priced out of property. The households of Australians aged 55+ currently own a combined $2.8 trillion and over the next two decades will pass on much of this. By the time they move from the growing to the spending side of this accumulation, it will have exceeded the $3 trillion level. Therefore, the decades ahead will see the biggest intergenerational wealth transfer in Australia’s history and many of the younger generations will be the main beneficiaries.

    Welcome to our blog...

    We have a passion for research that tells a story, that can be presented visually, that brings about change and improves organisations. And we hope these resources help you know the times.

    Our Social Media Sites

    Facebook | McCrindle Research Social Media YouTube | McCrindle Research Social Media Twitter | McCrindle Research Social Media Flickr | McCrindle Research Social Media Pinterest | McCrindle Research Social Media Google Plus | McCrindle Research Social Media LinkedIn | McCrindle Research Social Media Mark McCrindle Slideshare


    Last 100 Articles


    Tags

    educated sentiments lifestyle overcast sunburnt country WA local holidays communication mythbusters data builders public speaking criminal trends geomapping QLD spend Christmas presents baby name city social research trend tuesday australian communities trends report woolworths public holiday GPO sunny days suburban living gender entrepreneur 1968 university degree resource generation Z Word Up ageing population leadership omnibus small business tertiary education states government Gen Y Gen X victoria huffington post sydney speaker weather gen alpha data visualisation commute affordable Australians baby boomers slideshare friends wolloomooloo princess charlotte shopper's pick Sydney keynote speaker new york times publication pyrmont long weekend English Christmas season manly divorce workplace culture safe Australian demographics sector wide study urban living index Merry Christmas report research pack Queensland domestic social media vegetarian year 7 wages Royals TAS marriages workplace millenials monarchy keynote speaker father's day marrickville acf15 Love leadership workshop keynote research suburbs generation alpha intern demographic trends culture Deaths baby boom NT wealth mother's day social moreton bay Scouts water demographic anzac sydneysiders high density apartments conference presentation high school responsive sports environment weekly earnings presentations potts point cold national crime rates year 12 technology Generation Y budget grandparents unemployment identity royal baby family Population Clock capital cities annual income trend families Canberra tv social researcher consumer economy mining boom Australian schools cultural diversity follow results urban lalor park stats Aussies the changing face of christmas mccrindle research Christchurch newspaper education area business index coffee population growth work etiquette selfie Births Adelaide affordability quote analysis 2012 generation fresh prince george children business Australian Trends bondi entrepreneurs of today hills shire in the media panel social trends Crime Rates community offenders vegemite teleworking parenting media release gold coast paying to work Northern Territory brisbane housing trends australia home urban taskforce summer housing baby names VIC rising house prices demographics "know the times" presentation 24 million waverton schools child care shopping video 2015 World Water Day rain suburb communications demographer households Mark McCrindle financial snapshot social researchers 2016 ultimo SA optimistic cloudy days litter national private wealth population news millionth urban living research visualisation Australia Day holiday happiness online Generation X collaboration Melbourne christianity royal influence royal family state engage statistics crows nest logan 1994 list clothing baby work-life growth students 1975 The ABC of XYZ Tasmania national wealth eliane miles media focus group names income society survey marketing rich future proof generations narcissism thought leadership careers Wellington professional development world youth day hobart tattoos emerging generations royal neutral bay wedding future Charlotte optus 24,000,000 market research 1980 australian communities forum internet debt South Australia New Zeland repayments couple renter of the future darwin mortgage equip workforce middle class wealth distribution survey design retirement census winter blues 2013 organisational culture Territory Tuesday Trends religion 40 million HSC interactive Valentine’s Day poor entertainment home ownership facts blaxland housing growth politics living infographic crime university kate middleton Sydney cash Myth ACT innovation Australian Bureau of Statistics marriage graphs house earnings tuesday NSW brands population milestone 23 million sustainable rent online shopping divorce rate menai conference event high density living McCrindle Speakers Western Australia digital not for profit career social commentator celebration daily commute ease of travel renting CBD 2014 church cost proactive youth cars world transport ashley mckenzie define perth seasons cartodb school mccrindle Duchess of Cambridge household Christmas lunch February 16 tableau New South Wales hornsby land of the middle class sun language PSI gen z house prices winter shbc easter sydneycity global school satisfaction Australian Home employment ipswich mythbusting leader ABS jobs

    Archive